Have u ever entered a plane or seen it in a movie and the cockpit looks like this : -what are all this gadgets and avionics?is there a way to memorize them all? if the pilots can, we also can. Well will cover each part one by one and to ensure we don’t loose our minds well start with a small analogue cockpit before moving to the digital one.
Analog cockpit – This cockpit includes a lot of analog gauges, avionics and switches that enable a pilot to maneuver his way from land to air and vice versa. the analog cockpit is shown below:-We cannot exactly label all this parts due to space. So will so we will cover each one part by part.
Accelerometer – the avionic instrument below is an electromechanical and is found in the cockpit to assist the pilot know the acceleration of the plane in relation to gravity i.e g- force or g- units.
A.D.F– automatic direction finder, displayed in the cockpit for use in navigation to find bearing or direction in flight.
air speed indicator – used in the cockpit to alert the pilot on planes airspeed which is shown in knots
altmeter – used to measure altitude as per a certain level in a plane. it helps a pilot know specific altitude he/she is flying in.
altitude indicator -it informs the pilot of the orientation of the aircraft in relation to earth horizon. It also alerts on pitch, tilt i.e side to side or aft fore tilt. It can also be used for metrological information.
D.G.I – direction gyro instrument or heading indicator. this instrument has an inbuilt compass and it displays where the plane is headed in respect to magnetic north.
E.G.T – exhaust gas temperature gauge. used to show the measure of exhaust gas temperature in the engine.
flight hour recorder – used to tell the pilot the number of flight hours he/she has gone for. fuel quantity indicator – used to alert the pilot on the fuel quantity.
I.L.S/G.S.I– instrument landing system/ glide scope indicator – I.L.S enables a plane to land when the pilots is not able to have visual contact with the runway. the pilot centers the G.S.I to ensure he avoids obstructions and maneuver a perfect landing.
machmeter – shows the ratio of true air speed to speed of sound.
manifold pressure gauge – used to measure the pressure inside the induction system of a piston engine.
oil pressure indicator – used to indicate the level of oil pressure in the engine.
oil temperature indicator – used to indicate level of oil temperature in the engine.
radar altmeter indicator – bounces radio waves from the plane to the earths terrain, which are then reflected back to the plane inorder to measure altitude beneath the aircraft i.e to the terrain.
sunction gauge – used to measure negative pressure or suction on an airplane vacuum system.
tachometer – is an instrument used to measure the rotating speed of a shaft i.e from a rotating source i.e gear, engine.
transponder – it is a device that emits a signal in response to a received signal
turn coordinator – shows the rate of roll and turn in a plane.
verticle speed indicator – indicates to the pilot the rate of descent and climb.
Digital cockpit – in digital cockpit there is use of some of the above instruments but some instruments are combined into one major instrument like below :-
E.A.D.I – Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator, used to indicate altitude and direction of plane.
E.H.S.I – Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator, used to alert the pilot on which direction to fly i.e left or right.
primary flight display – it displays a number of the analog avionics combined indications.
navigation display – assists the pilot in navigating the plane.
Flight Management System (F.M.S) – it is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of inflight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew. Its major function is inflight control of the flight plan
Multi-functional Control and Display Unit (M.C.D.U) is same as the above but has more functions.
all the above digital avionics combine to form electronic flight instrument system E.F.I.S which is more electronic than electromechanical system.