There are many ways to increase drag and reduce speed in an aircraft either when on the ground or on air, these includes spoilers, thrust reversers and air brakes.
other methods of braking include wheel brakes, drogue parachutes and dive brakes. We will cover all these below :-
- spoilers – its also known as lift dumper or lift spoiler, this is because it controls and reduces lift on an aerofoil.spoilers are plates found on the top surface of a wing that extends upwards into the airflow to spoils it.
- thrust reversers – this is the occasional diversion of an jet engines exhaust so that it is directed forward instead of backwards hence enabling the plane to slow down. there are two types of thrust reversers i.e target type or target bucket thrust reverser and pivoting door thrust reverser as shown below.
- air brakes – they are also known as speed brakes and are used to increase drag and angle of approach during landing. They differ from spoilers in that they increase drag with minimal change in lift.
- drogue parachutes – this is a parachute designed to be deployed in a quickly moving aircraft in order provide control and stability hence reducing speed especially after landing.
- dive brake – they are also known as dive flaps. deployed to slow down an aircraft when in a dive. a perforated metal plate flap is lowered against airflow hence creating drag and creating deceleration in dive speed.
- wheel brakes – used to brake the wheels while touching the ground in landing. They are either pneumatic or hydraulic type. When activated on top of rudder pedals they are known as toe brakes but when activated in bottom section they are known as heel brakes. the brakes can either be drum or disc brakes, just like a car moreover aircrafts also come with a parking brake of rachet type where they keep the brake pressure in the system that holds the aircraft in its place.