network topology is a way and method in which computers are networked. This networks not only enable computers to connect to each other, communicate and share files but also allow for internet access.
types of network topology include :-
- Bus network topology – In this network topology all computers are connected in one “bus” i.e one networking cable i.e just like how ribs connect to a backbone in a human body.A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the addressed recipient while all the other machines ignore the data. when one computer is has malfunctioned the rest are not affected however when the backbone cable is destroyed the whole system is affected.
- Ring network topology – in this topology all computers are connected in form of a ring or circle. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction i.e clockwise or anticlockwise. Two connections between each network mode may be classified as dual ring topology i.e where the flow is bidirectional. when one computer malfunctions it affects the rest of the system.
- star network topology – computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. The hub is therefore the central node that may be a network hub, switch or router. This topology is most common in small business and home networks and uses u.t.p ( un-shielded twisted pair) Ethernet cable. failure in one computer does not result in malfunction of the whole system whereas failure of the hub results in failure of the whole system.
- mesh topology– it is classified into two i.e partially connected and fully connected mesh topology. in this partially connected case certain nodes are connected to exactly one other node whereas some nodes are connected to two or more other nodes. in fully connected mesh all nodes are interconnected just like bellow. It should be noted that failure of one computer in this case does lead to failure of the whole system.
- tree network topology – it is also known as hierarchical topology in that It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to in form of a hierarchy. failure of one computer doe not render the system useless.
- hybrid network topology – Hybrid networks combine two or more of the above topology i.e ring, bus, star e.t.c resulting in an nonstandard topology. failure of one computer doesn’t Paralyze the whole system.