Civil Engineering


Quarrying 242

Quarrying is the process of taking stones from their natural rock bed. Many factors may determine quarry site. They include Haulage facilities of quarry material Availability of good building stones Sufficient damping site for quarry refuse In case of quarry blasting, there should be sufficient distance between quarry from buildings. […]


Factors determining pavement design 237

There are many factors that determine pavement design. this includes the following :- Axle configuration – in car design providing more axles enables it to carry more load, this more load needs  to be pre-determined in design. this ranges from single unit trucks, convectional combination vehicles & longer combination vehicles. […]


Surveying 665

Surveying is the art of making measurements of the relative positions of natural and man made features on earth surface and plotting this measurement to suitable scale to form a map plan or section. PRIMARY DIVISION OF SURVEYING Geodetic surveying – this is the type of survey in which curvature […]


Stairs 411

stairs are means of descending or ascending from one floor level to another by a series of steps. PARTS OF A STAIR Riser – is the vertical face of a step Rise – vertical distance between to consecutive treads Tread – horizontal surface of the stair that is stepped on […]


Types of roofs 155

In the building industry whether due to structural integrity, formality or aesthetics there are many types of roofs. This include :- Saddle roof  – this is a concave roof that curves inwards from a high top. it can also be a hyperbolic paraboloid roof.  flat roof – this is basically […]


Types of Buildings & Structures 821

There are many types of buildings, depending on design the home structure can be made to desires preference. They include :- Condominium – This is a large building containing a number of individually owned suites. it is also known as condo.  Apartment – a large building containing residential suites. it […]


Types of roads 803

The different types of roads are :- 2+1 road – This is a road that is a three-lane consisting of two lanes in one direction and one lane in the other commonly separated by a cable barrier.  2+2 road – This is a four lane road consisting of two lanes […]


pavement road defects 807

There are many types of roads but pavement roads are the most popular specifically those with asphalt or tarmac. in this article we will cover the most common defects and their causes :- Alligator cracking – This is a pavement defect brought about by poor drainage, weak base, sub grade  […]


Types of roof & bridge truss 817

there are many assortment of bridges in the construction industry. They include roof and bridge trusses and their structural integrity depend on their design and construction like shown below :- ROOF TRUSSES Attic truss – this truss is designed with a spaced allocation to fit an attic. Belgian truss – […]


Types of cement 785

There are many types of cement different in chemical composition and with different properties.   Ordinary portland cement –  This is the most commonly used cement. its properties render it useful in many building sites although it cannot be used where there is exposure to sulphates or ground water. Rapid […]